Robert V Kenyon, MS, PhD
Department of Computer Science
Building & Room:
851 S. Morgan St, MC 152, Chicago, IL, 60607
Dr. Kenyon received his B.S. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Rhode Island, in 1970, a M.S. degree in Bioengineering from the University of Illinois at Chicago, in 1972, and a Ph.D. in Physiological Optics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1978. From 1978 to 1979 he was a post-doctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1979, he was hired as an assistant professor the Department in the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge. In 1985, he was promoted to Associate Professor of Aeronautics and Astronautics. In 1986, he accepted a position as Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the University of Illinois at Chicago. During the summer of 1995, he was a visiting assistant professor at Wright State University and a visiting research associate at Wright-Patterson's Human Research Laboratory. On July 1, 2001, the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science was split into two newly created departments: the Department of Computer Science and the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. As an interdisciplinary scientist whose expertise spans many disciplines, Dr. Kenyon joined the Department of Computer Science to foster his work on human computer interaction. From 2000-2002 he was a visiting Associate Professor at the University of Washington, Seattle. In 2006, was a visiting Research Associate at the College de France, Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action, and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, working with Prof. Alain Berthoz. In 2015, was visiting Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology working with Professor Laurence Young in the Aeronautic and Astronautics Department.
Dr. Kenyon's expertise spans the areas of sensory-motor adaptation, effects of micro-gravity on vestibular development, visuo-motor control, virtual environments [flight/vehicle and near-visual-field simulation], computer graphics, Tele-immersion/networking and sensory/motor integration for navigation and wayfinding. The research thread that runs through all this work is to understand how humans and animals adapt to their changing environment. A change in environment maybe voluntary such as orbiting the earth in a space craft, adapting to the conditions of a virtual environment, or involuntary such as adapting to the consequences of a stroke, brain injury or the control of a prosthetic limb. In each case, the brain changes its behavior in some fashion that may or may not be helpful. This line of research endeavors to understand and document these changes and perhaps find better ways to improve adaptation. Since the area of adaptation is enormous, he has concentrated on three main sensory systems that form the most tractable adaptation processes and can be studied though behavior measures: vision, vestibular [balance], and haptics [force feedback]. Dr. Kenyon has fused his computer science knowledge with this area to bring new technology and methods to help investigate this complex area of science.
The micro-gravity research involved experiments on several Space Shuttle missions that studied the effects of micro-gravity [low earth orbit] on human/animal orientation: STS-9, Spacelab-1, German Space-lab (D-1), and STS-29 ("Chix in Space"). Much of this work was seminal to our understanding the effects of spaceflight on humans. The first 3 flights examined how humans adapt to microgravity and then re-adapt to earth when they return. The last flight refined our understanding of the effects of microgravity on vestibular development in embryo of the chicken. Dr. Kenyon's work on re-adaptation following space flight has produced seminal papers on how the balance system must change following exposure to microgravity. In addition to the direct science of the flight, the technological innovations that were needed to measure adaptation while on-orbit were also significant. The automated eye movements recording methods developed by Dr. Kenyon and his student (Parker) were important contributions to not only the science of the flight but some of their methods found significant applications in industry and are currently embedded in products we use today. The work on embryo development addressed the concern of the effects of human development and birth while in microgravity environment. This work points directly to our current endeavors to colonize the moon and travel to Mars. The contribution from this work indicates that space travel may not affect development of certain sensory system.
Dr. Kenyon's work on virtual environments (VE) started with flight simulators while at MIT and continued here at UIC with his involvement with the development of the CAVE. At MIT, he developed and delivered a wide-field-of-view computer-generated image superior to the current day head mounted displays to produce simulator-like experiences for AF pilots undergoing training at Brooks AFB centrifuge and disorientation trainers. He also was originator, director, of one of the first flight simulator courses in the country designed for professionals (MIT's summer session program). With this experience he was a major contributor to the development of the CAVE and understanding its advantages and limitations. He interests are mainly to understanding how limitations of a VE system (such as the CAVE) can affect human behavior. Other work has examined human performance in VEs and how to quantify the use of VEs for training and collaboration. For example, he and his student (Boer) development of system identification tool based on Kalman filters that can be used to estimate in real-time the delay and model coefficients of a human operator and how these characteristics change as the person's environment is changed. This work has applications in the new area of Brain Machine Interface where investigators connect a disabled person's brain through electrodes to control machines such as a computer. His work in adaptation has included some of the first work on the use of networked VE systems. Using both stand-alone CAVE applications and also multiple CAVEs in networked (i.e., tele-immersive) applications and a variety of networks from ISDN to the latest international networks (STARTAP) he showed how certain types of network delay can adversely affect user behavior and performance.
He continues to study the use of virtual environments in a variety of investigations that document its affects on human performance and its role in biocybernetics. This work is being carried out at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, involves the coupling of robots to VE. The initial work began with the integration of visual and motion information in maintaining erect posture. This work with Dr. Keshner has impacted the use of visual information for the study of posture control. Prior to this work, the use and efficacy of VE in this area was not appreciated. We have been able to show that we can explore areas of posture control that are mediated by higher level cognitive functions that were not realistically available to investigators prior to our work and the introduction to VE to this area. The application of VE and posture platform motion has been used to examine how young healthy individuals, elderly, and those with a loss of vestibular function combine visual and motion information to maintain erect posture. The use of complex visual scenes with physical motion has allowed the exploration of how these individuals integrate information from these sensors in the physical world. In addition to the work on posture, he and Dr. Patton have coupled VE and Robot systems to explore new methods that will aid in the rehabilitation of victims of stroke. Specifically, these systems are being used to apply both visual and haptic [force feedback] information in combinations that help the stroke patients regain control of affected limbs [arm motion]. In parallel with this work Dr. Kenyon is studying rehabilitation of hand motion in stroke patients with Dr. Kamper. Here they have combined a Head Mounted Display and a pneumatic appliance to train patients to regain hand mobility following stroke. This has also allowed investigators to understand better the learning and adaptations that are still possible following brain injury. Finally, Dr. Kenyon has embarked on the applying VE to area of prosthetic devices and how the combination of virtual and real objects can be used to train and improve the actions of persons that need to use prostheses. This work is in its initial stages and being conducted with Dr. Todd Kuiken at RIC. However, Dr. Kenyon has been able to attract several graduate students to contribute to this work.
Dr. Kenyon co-developed the very popular Virtual Reality [CS 528] with T. Defanti. In the early 1990s Dr. Defanti made a major contribution to VR with the invention of the CAVE. This emerging field of Virtual Reality continued to be pushed forward by the work of EVL. Dr. Kenyon with a long history of computer graphics and flight simulator teaching experience collaborated with Dr. Defanti [Director of EVL] to develop this course so that students at UIC could stay abreast of this ever changing field of research and development. This course was one of the first courses in the country that dealt with this subject matter. The addition of this course now provides our students with tools they need to be attractive to a number of prestigious companies that deal with gaming and animation.
Dr. Kenyon has engaged undergraduate students in his research throughout his tenure at UIC. This is a demonstration of his philosophy that we need to attract and train our next generation of scientist early in their education. By exposing these energetic undergraduates to the excitement of discovery we will be able to show them the great satisfaction that can come from research and teaching. In keeping with this philosophy, Dr. Kenyon has obtained funds from NSF to support undergraduate students and has guided a multitude of undergraduates through the process of discovery. Some of these students have appeared as co-authors on his publications.
1. Kenyon, R.V., Ciuffreda, K.J., and Stark, L.: Binocular eye movements during accommodative vergence. Vision Research 18: 545-555, 1978.
2. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Increased saccadic latencies in amblyopic eyes. Inves. Optht. & Vis. Sci. 17: 697-702, 1978.
3. Stark, L., Bahill, A.T., Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Phillips, S.: Neuro-Optometry: An evolving specialty clinic. Amer. Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics 54: 85-96, 1977.
4. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Different rates of functional recovery of eye movements during orthoptics treatment in an adult amblyope. Invest. Ophth. & Vis. Sci. 18: 213-219, 1979.
5. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Abnormal saccadic substitution during constant velocity tracking in amblyopic eyes. Invest. Ophth. & Vis. Sci. 18: 506-516, 1979.
6. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Processing delays in amblyopic eyes: Evidence from increased latencies. Amer. J. Opt. & Physiol. Optics 55: 187-196, 1978.
7. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Different rates of functional recovery of eye movements during orthoptics treatment in an adult amblyope. Invest. Ophth. & Vis. Sci. 18: 213-219, 1979.
8. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Abnormal saccadic substitution during constant velocity tracking in amblyopic eyes. Invest. Ophth. & Vis. Sci. 18: 506-516, 1979.
9. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Saccadic intrusions in strabismus. Arch. Ophth. 97: 1673-1677, 1979.
10. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Suppression of fixational saccades in strabismic and anisometroptic amblyopia. Ophthalmic. Res. 11: 31-39, 1979.
11. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Increased drift in amblyopic eyes. Brit. J. Ophth. 64: 7-14, 1980.
12. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Fixational eye movements in amblyopia and strabismus.Am. Ophth. Assoc. J. 50: 1251-1258, 1979.
13. Kenyon, R.V., Ciuffreda, K.J., and Stark, L.: Dynamic vergence eye movements in strabismus and amblyopia: Symmetric vergence. Invest. Ophth. & Vis. Sci. 18: 60-74, 1980.
14. Kenyon, R.V., Ciuffreda, K.J., and Stark, L.: An unexpected role for accommodative vergence in strabismus and amblyopia. Am. J. Ophth. and Physiol. Optics. 57: 566-577, 1980.
15. Kenyon, R.V., Ciuffreda, K.J., and Stark, L.: Unequal saccades during vergence. Am. J. Ophth. & Physiol. Optics. 57: 586-594, 1980.
16. Stark, L., Kenyon, R.V., Krishnan, V.V., and Ciuffreda, K.J.: Disparity Vergence: A proposed name for a dominant component of binocular vergence eye movements. Am. J. Ophth. & Physiol. Optics. 57: 606-609, 1980.
17. Kenyon, R.V., Ciuffreda, K.J., and Stark, L.: Asymmetric and accommodative vergence eye movements in strabismus and amblyopia. Brit. J. Ophthal.66: 167-176, 1981.
18. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Saccadic intrusions contributing to reading disability: A Case Report. Am. J. Ophthal. and Physiol. 60: 242-249, 1983.
19. Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Unequal saccades generated by velocity interactions in the peripheral oculomotor system. Mathematical Biosciences, 63: 187-198, 1983.
20. Parker, A.J., Kenyon, R.V. and Troxel, D.: Comparison of interpolating methods for image resampling. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, MF-2: 31-39, 1983.
21. Stark, L., Ciuffreda, K.J., Grisham, J.D., Kenyon, R.V., Liu, J., Polse, K.: Accommodative disfacility presenting as intermittent exotropia. Ophthalmic. & Physiol. Optics, 4: 233-244, 1984.
22. Kenyon, R.V., Becker, J.T., Butters, N. and Hermann H.: Oculomotor function in Wernicke-Korsakoff’s syndrome: saccadic eye movements, Intern. J. NeuroSciences 25: 67-79, 1984.
23. Kenyon, R.V., Becker, J.T., and Butters, N.: Oculomotor function in Wernicke-Korsakoff’s Syndrome: Smooth pursuit eye movements, Intern. J. NeuroSciences 25: 53-65, 1984.
24. Parker, A.J., Kenyon, R.V. and Young, L.R.: Measurement of torsion from multi-temporal images of the eye using digital signal processing techniques, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-32: 28-36, 1985.
25. Kenyon, R.V. A soft contact lens search coil for measuring eye movements. Vision Research 25: 1629-1633, 1985.
26. Kenyon, R.V. and Young, L.R.: MIT Canadian vestibular experiments on Spacelab-1 mission: 5. Postural responses following exposure to weightlessness. Exp. Brain Res. 64: 335-346, 1986.
27. Young, LR, Oman, CM, Watt, DGD, Money, KE, Lichtenberg, BK, Kenyon RV, and Arrott, AR. MIT Canadian vestibular experiments on Spacelab-1 mission: 1. Sensory adaptation to weightlessness and readaptation to one-g: an overview. Exp. Brain Res. 64: 291-298, 1986.
28. Kenyon, R.V. Kerschmann R. and Silbergleit R: Streptomycin in the chick embryo: Post-hatching vestibular behavior and morphology. Exp. Brain Res.69: 260-271, 1988.
29. Cruz-Neira C, Sandin D, Defanti T, Kenyon R, and Hart J., The CAVE Audio-Visual Environment. ACM Trans. on Graphics, 35: 65-72, 1992.
30. Kenyon R. and Kneller, E., The Effects of Field-of-View Size on the Control of Roll Motion. IEEE Trans. Systems, Man and Cybern., 23:183-193, 1993.
31. Previc, F., Kenyon R., Boer, E., and Johnson, B., The Effects of Visual Roll Stimulation on Postural and Manual Control and Self-Motion Perception.Perception and Psychophysics, 54: 93-107, 1993.
32. Kenyon R., Kerschman, R., Sgarioto, R., Jun S., and Vellinger J. Normal Vestibular Development in the Chicks after Exposure to Microgravity during Development. J. Vestibular Research, 5: 289-298, 1995.
33. Kenyon RV, DeFanti TA, Sandin DJ. Visual Requirements for Virtual Environment Generation. Journal of the Society for Information Display, 3 (4), 211-214, 1995.
34. Kenyon R and Afenya M, Training in Virtual and Real Environments, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 23: 445-455, 1995.
35. Boer, E. R. and Kenyon R. V., Estimation of Time Varying Delay Time in Non-Stationary Linear Systems: An Approach to Monitor Human Operator Adaptation in Manual Tracking Tasks, IEEE Trans. Man, Systems and Cybern., 28(1): 89-99, 1998.
36. Shapiro, MB and Kenyon, RV. Control variables in mechanical muscle models: A mini-review and a new model. Motor Control, 4, 329-349, 2000.
37. Keshner E.A. and Kenyon R.V. The influence of an immersive virtual environment on the segmental organization of postural stabilizing responses. Journal of Vestibular Research, 10:207-219, 2000.
38. Duh, H.B.L., Lin, J.J.W., Kenyon, R.V., Parker, D.E., Furness, T.A, Effects of Characteristics of Image Quality in an Immersive Environment. Presence, 11(3), 2002.
39. Keshner E.A., Kenyon R.V., and Langston, J. Postural Responses Exhibit Intra-Modal Dependencies with Discordant Visual and Support Surface Motion, Journal of Vestibular Research 14, 307-319, 2004.
40. Kenyon, R.V., Leigh, J, and Keshner, E.A. Considerations for the Future Development of Virtual Technology as a Rehabilitation Tool. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 1(1): 13, 2004.
41. Keshner E.A. and Kenyon R.V. Using immersive technology for postural research and rehabilitation. J. Assistive Technology, 16(1), 54-62, 2004.
42. Patton, J., Dawe, G., Scharver, C., Mussa-Ivaldi, F., Kenyon, R.V. Robotics and Virtual Reality: A Perfect Marriage for Motor Control Research and Rehabilitation, J. Assistive Technology, 18 (2), 2006.
43. Keshner, EA, Dokka, K. and Kenyon, RV. Influences of the Perception of Self-Motion on Postural Parameters in a Dynamic Visual Environment. Cyber Psychology and Behavior, 9 (2), 163-166, 2006.
44. Dvorkin, AY., Kenyon, RV, and Keshner, EA. Reaching Within a Dynamic Virtual Environment. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 2007, 4:23, 2007.
45. Kenyon, R.V., Sandin, D. Smith, R., Pawlicki, R. and Defanti, T. Size-Constancy in the CAVE, Presence: Teleoperators & Virtual Environments, 16(2), pp. 172-187, 2007.
46. Streepey, J, Kenyon, RV, and Keshner, EA. Field of view and base of support width influence postural responses to visual stimuli during quiet stance. Gait and Posture, 25(1), pp. 49-55, 2007.
47. Streepey, J, Kenyon, RV, and Keshner, E.A. Visual motion combined with base of support width reveals variable field dependency in healthy young adults. Exp. Brain Res, 176(1), pp. 182-187, 2007.
48. Gauthier, Gabriel; Hansmann, Doug; Kenyon, Bob; Semmlow, John; Usui, Shiro and Young, Larry. Editorial: The arts and sciences of Lawrence Stark. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 37(7), 898-902, 2007.
49. Dvorkin, A., Kenyon, R.V., and Keshner, E.A. Reaching within a dynamic virtual environment. Journal NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 4(23), 2007.
50. Kenyon, R.V., Phenany, M., Sandin, D. and Defanti, T. Accommodation and Size-Constancy of Virtual Objects. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 36(2) , pp. 342-348, 2008.
51. Dvorkin, Assaf ; Kenyon, Robert; Keshner, Emily. Effects of roll visual motion on online control of arm movement: reaching within a dynamic virtual environment. Experimental Brain Research. 193(1):95-107, 2009.
52. Dokka, K, Kenyon, R. and Keshner, K. Influence of visual scene velocity on segmental kinematics during stance. Gait and Posture, Gait and Posture, 30(2): 211-216, 2009.
53. Dokka K., Kenyon R.V, Keshner E.A. and Kording K.P. Self versus Environment Motion in Postural Control . PLoS Computational Biology. 6(2): e1000680, 2010.
54. Wang Y, Kenyon RV, Keshner EA. Identifying the control of physically and perceptually evoked sway responses with coincident visual scene velocities and tilt of the base of support. Exp Brain Res. 201(4):663-72, 2010.
55. Connelly L, Jia Y, Toro M.L., Stoykov M.E., Kenyon R.V., and Kamper D.G. Use of a pneumatic glove and immersive virtual reality for hand rehabilitation following stroke . IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, in press.
56. Gurses, S, Kenyon, RV, Keshner, EA. Examination of Time-Varying Kinematic Responses to Support Surface Disturbances. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control, in press.
Peer Reviewed Conference Papers
1. Stark, L, Shults, T., Ciuffreda, K.J., Hoyt, W.F., Kenyon, R.V., and Ochs, A.: Voluntary nystagmus is saccadic: Evidence for motor and sensory mechanisms. . Proc. of the Joint Automatic Control Conference, v. 2, June, 1977, pp: 1410-1414.
2. Kenyon, R.V., and Stark, L.: Unequal saccades produced by non-linear plant dynamics. IEEE Inter. Conf. on Cybern. & Soc. pp: 596â‘599, October 8-10, 1980.
3. Kenyon, RV., and Lichtenberg, BK.: Measurement of ocularcounterrolling (OCR) by polarized light. Proceedings of SPIE: Polarizers and Applications, 307, pp: 79-82, 1981.
4. Kenyon RV, and Kneller, EW. Human performance and field-of-view. Soc. for Inform. Display Intern. Sympos., 23, pp:290-293, 1992.
5. Boer ER and Kenyon RV, Identification of Time Varying Systems, IEEE Inter. Conf. on Biomedical Engineering, Oct 29- Nov 1 pp: 1481-1482, Paris, 1992.
6. Ghazisaedy M, Adamczyk D, Sandin D, Kenyon R, and Defanti T, UltraSonic Calibration of a Magnetic Tracker in a Virtual Reality Space. Proceedings of the IEEE Annual Virtual Reality International Symposium (VRAIS) (Raleigh, NC, March 11-15), pp: 179-188, 1995.
7. Reynolds, W.D. and Kenyon, R.V., The Wavelet Transform and the Suppression Theory of Binocular Vision for Stereo Image Compression. 3rd IEEE International Conference on Image Processing, Lausanne, Switzerland, Sep. 16-19, pp: 557-560, 1996.
8. Isabelle, SK, Gilkey, RH, Kenyon, RV, Valentino, G, Flach J, Spenny, C., Anderson TR., Defense applications of the CAVE (CAVE automatic virtual environment). Proceedings of SPIE: 11th Annual Conference on Aerospace/sensing simulation and control. Cockpit Displays IV: Flat Panel Displays for Defense Applications, Ed: D, Hopper, SPIE Vol. 3057, pp: 118-125, Orlando, Fl, April 20-25, 1997.
9. Boer, E.R.; Kenyon, R.V. Adaptation asymmetry in manual tracking. IEEE Intern. Conf. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics ‘Computational Cybernetics and Simulation’, Oct 12-15. pp: 3630-3635, vol.4 Orlando, FL, 1997.
10. Leigh, J, Park, K, Kenyon, RV, Johnson, AE, DeFanti, TA. Wong, H. Preliminary STARTAP Tele-Immersion Experiments between Chicago and Singapore, 3rd High Performance Computing Asia Conference & Exhibition, 22-25, pp. 687-693, September, 1998, Singapore.
11. Mascarenhas, R., Karumuri, D., Buy, U., and Kenyon, R. Modeling and analysis of a virtual reality system with time Petri nets. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Software Engineering, pp: 33-42, Kokyo, Japan, April 20-22, 1998.
12. Park, K and Kenyon, RV. Effects of Network Characteristics on Human Performance in the Collaborative Virtual Environment. IEEE Virtual Reality ’99 Conference, Ed: L. Rosenblum, P. Astheimer, D. Teichmann, pp: 104-111, March 14-17, 1999, Houston Tx, 1999.
13. J Leigh , A Johnson, T DeFanti, M Brown, M Ali, S Bailey, A Banerjee, P Banerjee,J Chen, K Curry, J Curtis, F Dech, B Dodds, I Foster, S Fraser, K Ganeshan, D. Glen, R. Grossman, R. Heiland, J Hicks, A. Hudson, T Imai, M Khan, A Kapoor, R Kenyon, J Kelso, R Kriz, C Lascara, X Liu, Y Lin, T Mason, A Millman, K Nobuyuki, K Park, B Parod, P. Rajlich, M Rasmussen,, M Rawlings, D.Robertson, S Thongrong, R. Stein, K Swartz, S Tuecke, H Wallach, H Wong, G.Wheless, A Review of Tele-Immersive Applications in the CAVE Research Network. IEEE Virtual Reality ’99 Conference, Ed: L. Rosenblum, P. Astheimer, D. Teichmann, pp: 180-187, March 14-17, 1999, Houston Tx.
14. Duh, H.B.L., Lin, J.J.W., Kenyon, R.V., Parker, D.E., Furness, T.A., (2001), Effects of field of view on balance in an immersive environment, Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality 2001 (IEEE VR 2001), Yokohama, Japan, pp 235-240, 2001.
15. Keshner, E.A. and Kenyon R.V. (2002) The development of an immersive laboratory for postural research and rehabilitation. Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Virtual Reality in Mental Health and Rehabilitation, EPFL, Lausanne Switzerland, November, 2002.
16. Keshner, EA and Kenyon RV. Postural control shifts with sensory discordance. International Society for Posture and Gait Research. March 23 – 27, Sydney, Australia. 2003
17. Patton, J. L., G. Dawe, Scharver, C., Muss-Ivaldi, F. A., Kenyon, R. Robotics and Virtual Reality: A Perfect Marriage for Motor Control Research and Rehabilitation. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference (EMBS), pp:4840-4843, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2004.
18. Keshner, EA., Kenyon, RV., Dhaher, Y. Using Immersive Technology for Postural Research and Rehabilitation, 26th Intern. Conf IEEE EMBS, pp: 4862-4865, San Francisco, September 1-5, 2004.
19. Kenyon, RV. and Leigh, J., Networked Virtual Environments and Rehabilitation, 26th Intern. Conf IEEE EMBS, pp: 4832-4835, San Francisco, September 1-5, 2004.
20. Keshner, E.A., Kenyon, R.V. (2005). Visual context affects postural strategies in healthy and labyrinthine deficient elderly. International Society for Posture and Gait Research, Marseilles, France, May 29-June 2, 2005.
21. Kenyon, R.V., Gurses, S., Keshner, E.A. (2005). Determining the effects of visual and self-motion inputs on intersegmental postural responses. International Society for Posture and Gait Research, Marseilles, France, May 29-June 2, 2005
22. Scharver, C, Patton, J, Kenyon, R, Kersten, E (2005) Comparing adaptation of constrained and unconstrained movements in three dimensions, Proceedings of 2005 International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, pp: 434-439, Chicago, IL . 28 June-1 July 2005
23. Luo, X., Kline, T., Fischer, H.C., Stubblefield, K.A., Kenyon, R.V., Kamper, D.G. Integration of Augmented Reality and Assistive Devices for Post-Stroke Hand Opening Rehabilitation. 27th Intern. Conf IEEE EMBS, Sept 1-4., pp: 6855-6858, Shanghai, China, 2005.
24. X. Luo, R. V. Kenyon, D. G. Kamper. An Augmented Reality Training Environment for Post-Stroke Finger Extension Rehabilitation. In: IEEE-International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, pp: 329 – 332, Chicago, IL, 28 June-1 July 2005
25. Patton, J.L., Wei, Y., Scharver, C., Kenyon, R.V., Scheidt, R., Motivating Rehabilitation by Distorting Reality, BioRob 2006: The first IEEE / RAS-EMBS International Conference on Biomedical Robotics and Biomechatronics, Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, pp. 869 – 874, February 20-22, 2006.
26. Dvorkin A.Y., Kenyon R.V. & Keshner E.A. (2006) Reaching within a dynamic virtual environment. In: IEEE 5th International Workshop on Virtual Rehabilitation. p. 182-186, NY, Aug. 2006.
27. Xun Luo, Kenyon, R., Kamper, D., Sandin, D., DeFanti, T. The Effects of Scene Complexity, Stereovision, and Motion Parallax on Size Constancy in a Virtual Environment, IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, 2007. VR ’07, pp.59-66, 10-14 March 2007.
28. Dokka K, .Keshner EA, and Kenyon RV. Influence of visual and support surface velocities on head position. International Society for Posture and Gait Research, p. 121, Vermont, July 14-18, 2007.
29. Yun Wang; Kenyon, R.V.; Keshner, E.A., ” Virtual scene velocity influences postural responses to an inclined base of support,” Virtual Rehabilitation, pp.41-44, 25-27 Aug. 2008
30. Rozario S, Housman S, Kovic M, Kenyon R, Patton J Therapist-mediated post-stroke rehabilitation using haptic/graphic error augmentation . In: IEEE Engineering In Medicine and Biology Conference (EMBC), Minneapolis, MN, 2009.
31. Xun Luo; Kenyon, R.V.; , “HAMERA: A device for hand profile construction in the pervasive environment ,” IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, 2009. PerCom 2009, pp.1-6, 9-13 March 2009.
32. Xun Luo; Kenyon, R.V.; , “Scalable Vision-based Gesture Interaction for Cluster-driven High Resolution Display Systems,” Virtual Reality Conference, 2009. IEEE VR 2009, pp.231-232, 14-18 March 2009.
33. L Connelly, ME Stoykov, Y Jia, ML. Toro, RV. Kenyon, and DG. Use of a Pneumatic Glove for Hand Rehabilitation Following Stroke. IEEE EMBS, pp: 2434-2437, April 23, 2009, Minneapolis, MN.
34. Gurses, S, Kenyon, RV, Keshner, EA. Time-Varying Kinematic Responses to Support Surface Disturbances. In: International Society of Posture & Gait Research XIX Satellite PreConference, June 19-20, Pavia, Italy 2009. To Appear
35. Gurses, S, Kenyon, RV, Keshner, EA. Examination of Time-Varying Kinematic Responses to Support Surface Disturbances. In: IFAC 7th Symposium on Modeling and Control in Biomedical Systems, August 12-14, Aalborg, Denmark, 2009. To Appear
36. Bansal, D, Kenyon, RV, Patton, J. Skill Generalization Relevant to Robotic Neuro-rehabilitation. 32nd Annual International IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference, 1-4 September, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2010. To Appear
Book Chapters and Theses
1. Kenyon, R.V.: Classification of Single Unit Potentials from the Medial Rectus Eye Muscle. Master’s Thesis, University of Illinois, December 1972.
2. Kenyon, R.V.: Vergence Eye Movements in Strabismus and Amblyopia. Doctoral Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1978.
3. Stark, L., Hoyt, W.F., Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V., and Hsu, F.: Overlapping and truncated saccades produce voluntary nystagmus. In: Oculomotor Models, B. Zuber, Ed., 1980.
4. Ciuffreda, K.J. and Kenyon, R.V.: Accommodative Vergence. In: Basic & Clinical Aspects of Binocular Vergence Eye Movements, eds. C. Schor, and K.J. Ciuffreda, Butterworths, Boston, 1983.
5. Young, LR, Oman, CM, Watt, DGD, Money, KE, Lichtenberg, BK, Kenyon RV, Arrott AR, and Modestino, SA. Vestibular changes following ten days of weightlessness. In: Sensory-motor Functions Under Weightlessness and Space Motion Sickness, Mitarai, G. and Igarashi, M. (eds.), U. Nagoya Press, 1985.
6. Patton JL, Wei Y, Hitchens J, Scharver C, Kenyon RV.: Exploiting the natural adaptive capacity of the nervous system for motor learning & rehabilitation. In: Ganchev N (ed) In: Basic Motor control to Functional Recovery IV. Martin Drinov Academic Publishing House, Sofia, Bulgaria, pp 272-280, 2005.
7. Keshner, EA, and Kenyon, RV. Postural and Spatial Orientation Driven by Virtual Reality. In: Advanced Technologies in Neurorehabilitation, eds. A. Gaggioli, E. Keshner, G. Riva, and P.L. Weiss, IOS Press, 2009.
Other Conference Papers
1. Kenyon, R.V., The CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment: Characteristics and Applications. Human-Computer Interaction and Virtual Environments,Ed. Ahmed Noor, NASA Conference Publication #3320, November, pp 149-168, 1995.
2. Tom Moher, Andy Johnson, Tom DeFanti, Maxine Brown, Dan Sandin, Jason Leigh, Bob Kenyon. HCI Research at the Electronic Visualization Laboratory. CHI, 2000.
3. Keshner E.A., Kenyon R.V., Dhaher Y., and Streepey J.W. Employing a virtual environment in postural research and rehabilitation to reveal the impact of visual information. International Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality, and Associated Technologies. New College, Oxford, UK, pp: 209-214, Sept. 20-22, 2004.
4. Keshner, E.A., Kenyon, R.V., and Dhaher, Y. Impact of visual information on posture is influenced by other sensory inputs. Proceedings of the International Society of Electrophysiology and Kinesiology (ISEK), Boston, MA, pp:52, June 18-21, 2004.
5. J. W. Streepey, E. A. Keshner, and R. V. Kenyon, Visual Search for a Target in a Virtual Environment: Effects on Stabilization of Posture in Young and Elderly, XVth Congress of Intern. Soc. of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology, Boston, MA, pp: 52, June 18-21, 2004
6. Kenyon R., Patton J.L., Dawe G., Scharver C., Muss-Ivaldi F. A., (2004) Robotics and Virtual Reality: Research in Rehabilitation, 4th International Symposium on Future Medical Engineering based on Bio-nanotechnology. Sendai, Japan. June 24-25, 2004.
7. Xun Luo, Jianhong Zhou, Robert V. Kenyon. Mining Interference Patterns for Electromagnetic Tracking Device Calibration. The 27th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, August, Shanghai China, 2005.
8. Kenyon R., Phenany M., Sandin D. Accommodation in Size-Constancy for Virtual Objects. Technical Memorandum, , University of California at Berkeley, 2005.
1. Kenyon, R.V. Effects of enhanced disparity on manual control, Final Report, AF Office of Scientific Research, 1981.
2. Kenyon, R.V., Zeevi, Y.Y., Wetzel, P. and Young, L.R.: Eye movements in response to single and multiple targets. AFHRL Technical Report # AFHRL�‘TR�‘84�‘29, January 1984.
3. Kenyon, RV, Kneller, E, Young, LR. Design and preliminary testing of a wide-field-of-view display for pilot disorientation research, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks, AFB, TX. Final Report, 1985.
4. Kenyon, RV, Adkins, S, and Young, LR. Development and Testing of Visual Display and Performance Task for USAFSAM Centrifuge, USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks, AFB, TX. Final Report, 1985.
5. Kenyon, RV, Kneller, E. Construction and implementation of a wide-field-of-view display for pilot disorientation research. USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks, AFB, TX. Final Report, 1987.
6. Kenyon RV, Adkins S. Development and testing of a visual display and a performance task for the USAFSAM centrifuge. USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks, AFB, TX. Final Report, 1987.
7. Kenyon RV, Boer E. The Nature of Visual Vestibular Interactions During Spatial Disorientation. USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks, AFB, TX. Progress Report, 1990.
8. Kenyon RV, Boer E. The Nature of Visual Vestibular Interactions During Spatial Disorientation. USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks, AFB, TX. Progress Report, 1990.
9. Kenyon RV, Boer E. The Nature of Visual Vestibular Interactions During Spatial Disorientation. USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks, AFB, TX. Final Report, 1991.
10. DeFanti, TA, Sandin, DJ, Kenyon, RV, Quantitative Assessment of Transfer of Training in the CAVE Virtual Environment and its Relevance to the National Information Infrastructure. NSF Award #IRI-9424272 Annual Report, Electronic Visualization Laboratory, University of Illinois at Chicago, May 1996-May 1997
11. Kenyon, RV, Sandin, DJ,. Spatial Discordance in Virtual Environments. Final Report, General Motors Research and Development Division, Warren, MI, contract #2-5-37457. December 13, 2002.
1. Kenyon R.V., Ciuffreda, K.J and Stark, L. Binocular eye movements during accommodative vergence. The Assoc. for Res. in Vision and Ophthal. (ARVO), April 26-30, Sarasota, Fl, 1976.
2. Stark, L, Shults, T., Ciuffreda, K.J., Hoyt, W.F., Hsu, F., Kenyon, R.V., and Ochs, A.: Voluntary nystagmus is saccadic: Evidence for motor and sensory mechanisms. The Assoc. for Res. in Vision and Ophthal. (ARVO), April 25-29, Sarasota, Fl, 1977.
3. Ciuffreda, K.J., Kenyon, R.V and Stark, L. Increased saccadic latencies in amblyopic eyes. The Assoc. for Res. in Vision and Ophthal. (ARVO), April 30-May 5, Sarasota, Fl, 1978.
4. Kenyon, R.V.. EMG burst reversals during dynamic overshoot, Presented at Workshop on Modeling Control of Eye Movements, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, October, 1981.
5. Kenyon, R.V., Medina, A. and Zeevi, Y.Y., Effects of attention on detection of flashed peripheral targets, Presented at Oculomotor Society, Chicago, IL, November 1982.
6. Parker, A.J., and Kenyon, R.V.: Comparison of interpolating methods for image resampling. Presented at Society of Nuclear Medicine, St. Louis, MO, June 1983.
7. Kenyon, R.V., Becker, J.T., Butters, N. and Hermann, H.: Oculomotor function in alcoholic Korsakoff’s syndrome, Presented at Society for Neurosciences, Boston, MA, October 1983.
8. Young, L.R. and Kenyon, R.V.: Assessment of postural control in man following exposure to weightlessness, Presented at International Society of Posturography, Houston, TX, November, 1983.
9. Kenyon, R.V. and Young, L.R.: Postural re-adaptation following exposure to weightlessness, presented at Society for Neurosciences, Anaheim, CA., October 1984.
10. Previc, F. and Kenyon R.: The Effects of Dynamic Visual Roll on Postural and Manual Control and Self-Motion Perception. Aerospace Med. Assoc. Conf, May 1991.
11. Kenyon R and Afenya M, Transfer-of-Training between Virtual and Real Environments, Annual Conference on Vision and Movement in Man, and Machine, Berkeley CA. June 23-24, 1994.
12. Gleason, G.A. and Kenyon R.V. The Mandelbaum Effect may not be due to involuntary mis-Accommodation. Invest Ophth Vis Sci, 38: (4) 4554-4554 Part 2 Mar 15 1997.
13. Kenyon, RV and Keshner, EA. Visual Field Effects on Body Stability. 9th Annual Meeting of the
Society for the Neural Control of Movement, Princeville, HI, April 16-19, 1999.
14. Kenyon, RV and Keshner, EA. Segmental Postural Stabilizing Responses in an Immersive Virtual Environment. Presented at Society for Neurosciences, New Orleans, LA, November 4 – 9, 2000.
15. Shapiro, MB, Kenyon, RV, Gottlieb GL. A Model of the Time-Optimal Control of Point-To-Point Human Voluntary Movement. Presented at Society for Neurosciences, New Orleans, LA, November 4 – 9, 2000.
16. Keshner, EA and Kenyon, RV. Locomotion in a dynamic immersive virtual environment.Symposium of the International Society for Postural and Gait Research, June 23-27, 2001.
17. Keshner E.A. and Kenyon R.V. Discordant multi-modal inputs influence postural strategies. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 2002.
18. Keshner E.A. and Kenyon R.V. Postural responses increase complexity with visual-vestibular discordance. Abstract presented at the 6th NASA Symposium on the Role of the Vestibular Organs in the Exploration of Space, Portland OR, October, 2002, J Vestibular Res, 11: 336, 2002.
19. Keshner E.A. and Kenyon R.V. Postural control shifts with sensory discordance. International Society for Posture and Gait, Sydney Australia, 2003.
20. Keshner E.A. and Kenyon R.V. Visual and platform perturbations produce out of plane postural reactions. International Society for Posture and Gait, Sydney Australia, 2003.
21. Patton JL and Kenyon R, Robotic Neurorehabilitation using State-of-the-art Robotics and Augmented Reality Displays, Invited talk at the Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America (RESNA) Research Symposium on Use of Virtual & Augmented Reality in Rehabilitation Research and Clinical Practice, Atlanta, June. 2003.
22. Patton JL, Kenyon R, Exploiting the adaptive tendencies of the nervous system for rehabilitation of brain injury: the PARIS-Robotic system, Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America (RESNA), Atlanta, June, 2003.
23. E.A. Keshner, R.V. Kenyon, and Y. Dhaher, Impact of Visual Information on Posture is Influenced by Other Sensory Inputs, Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 2003.
24. Keshner, EA. and Kenyon, RV. Virtual Reality: Its Use and Potential in Science, XVth Congress of Intern. Soc. of Electrophysiology & Kinesiology, Boston, MA, June 18-21, 2004
25. Streepey J, Kenyon RV, Keshner EA. Visual field motion alters the postural response to a minimized support surface. Soc. Neurosci Abstr, 2004.
26. Kenyon R., Patton J.L., Dawe G., Scharver C., Muss-Ivaldi F. A., (2004) “PARIS and Robots: Research in Rehabilitation” International Conference Series on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies, New College, Oxford, UK, 20-22 September 2004.
27. Streepey J, Kenyon RV, Keshner EA. Visual field motion affects postural responses of labyrinthine deficient patients to support surface perturbations. Soc. Neurosci Abstr, 2005.
28. Kenyon R., Phenany M., Sandin D. Accommodation in Size-Constancy for Virtual Objects. Annual Conference on Vision and Movement in Man, and Machine, Berkeley CA. May 26-27, 2005.
29. Dvorkin, AY., Kenyon, RV., Keshner, EA.. Effect of visual motion on reaching within a virtual environment. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 2006.
30. Wang Y, Kenyon, RV, Keshner, EA. Virtual Scene Velocity Influences Postural Responses to an Inclined Base of Support. Virtual Rehabilitation 2008, Vancouver, CAN, August 25-27, 2008.
31. Abodollahi, F, Kenyon, R. Speed Perception and the Leibowitz Hypothesis. IEEE EMBS, 2008 St. Louis, MO. [Poster]
Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 1978